A NEW SPECIES OF PARADONEIS HARTMAN, 1965 (ANNELIDA: PARAONIDAE) FROM THE NE IBERIAN PENINSULA (SE BAY OF BISCAY, NE ATLANTIC OCEAN)

Julián Martínez1

1Sociedad Cultural INSUB. Museo Okendo. Apdo. 3223, 20080 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain.  http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4043-241Xjulidoia@outlook.com

 

ABSTRACT

A new species of the genus Paradoneis Hartman, 1965 (Annelida, Paraonidae) has been identified from circalittoral soft bottoms of Basque Country (NE Iberian Peninsula, SE Bay of Biscay). The new species is mainly characterized by having small size, three prebranchial chaetigers, five (exceptionally, six) pairs of thin apinnate branchiae, modified notochaetae lyriform, and pygidial region whit seven cirri. In the present paper, the new species is described, illustrated and discussed. Some notes on its ecology and distribution in the area is also included. In addition, an identification key is provided for all known Paradoneis species. The Type Material has been deposited in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:BA4A3BE4-AD07-4761-90C6-44E80D4F0276

Keywords: New species; Annelida; Paraonidae; Paradoneis idoiae; Iberian Peninsula; Bay of Biscay; Atlantic.

 

RESUMEN

Una nueva especie de Paradoneis Hartman, 1965 (Annelida: Paraonidae) procedente del NE de la península Ibérica (SE del golfo de Vizcaya, NE del océano Atlántico)

Una especie nueva del género Paradoneis Hartman, 1965 (Annelida, Paraonidae) ha sido identificada en fondos blandos del País Vasco (NE de la península Ibérica, SE del golfo de Vizcaya). La nueva especie se caracteriza principalmente por su pequeña talla, tres segmentos setígeros prebranquiales, cinco (excepcionalmente seis) pares de delgadas branquias simples, notosedas modificadas liriformes, y una región pigidial con siete cirros. En el presente artículo se realiza una descripción, ilustración y discusión de la nueva especie, aportándose también información sobre su ecología y distribución. Complementariamente, se aporta una clave de identificación de todas las especies conocidas de Paradoneis. El Material Tipo ha sido depositado en el Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid.

Palabras clave: Nueva especie; Annelida; Paraonidae; Paradoneis idoiae; peninsula Ibérica; golfo de Vizcaya; Atlántico.

 

Recibido/Received: 27/09/2018; Aceptado/Accepted: 14/02/2019; Publicado en linea/Published online: 28/03/2019

Cómo citar este artículo/Citation: Martínez, J. 2019. A new species of Paradoneis Hartman, 1965 (Annelida: Paraonidae) from the NE Iberian Peninsula (SE Bay of Biscay, NE Atlantic Ocean). Graellsia, 75(1): e087. https://doi.org/10.3989/graellsia.2019.v75.223

Copyright: © 2019 SAM & CSIC. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.


 

CONTENT

IntroductionTOP

The paraonids represent a family of elongate, small polychaetes (up to 40 mm long) with numerous segments. They are deposit-feeders and can be found from the littoral zone to abyssal depths (Glasby, 2000), not having been found in fresh water.

Nowadays, this family includes about 156 species distributed in eight genera: Aparaonis Hartman, 1965, Aricidea Webster, 1879, Cirrophorus Ehlers, 1908, Levinsenia Mesnil, 1897, Paradoneis Hartman, 1965, Paraonides Cerruti, 1909, Paraonis Grube, 1873 and Sabidius Strelzov, 1973. The genus Paradoneis was composed of 21 species and 2 subspecies, seven of which have been reported in the Bay of Biscay (North Atlantic): P. lyra (Southern, 1914), P. armata Glémarec, 1966, P. bathyilvana Aguirrezabalaga & Gil, 2009, P. drachi Laubier & Ramos, 1974, P. eliasoni Mackie, 1991, P. ilvana Castelli, 1985 and P. mikeli Aguirrezabalaga & Gil, 2009.

During two sampling campaigns recently carried out on the continental shelf of the Basque coast (SE Bay of Biscay), a new species of Paradoneis is described, illustrated and compared with the currently known species of the genus.

Material and methodsTOP

Study areaTOP

The Basque Country is located in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula, straddling the border between France and Spain. The two specimens where collected on soft bottoms of the continental shelf of the provinces of Gipuzkoa and Bizkaia (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1.— Study area and locations of sampling stations.
Fig. 1.— Área de estudio y localización de las estaciones de muestreo.

 

Sample collection and analysisTOP

Samples were taken in 2018 by AZTI-TECNALIA. Three benthic replicates were collected at each station using a Smith-McIntyre dredge (0.1 m2). The sediments were washed through a 1 mm mesh sieve and fixed with a 4 % formalin solution. In the laboratory the samples were sorted and transferred to 70 % ethanol. Afterwards, the fauna was identified to species or lowest possible taxon under an Olympus stereomicroscope and a Zeiss microscope. Specimens were measured using an ocular micrometer. Photographs were taken with a Nikon D7200 digital camera adapted to an Olympus stereomicroscope and a Zeiss microscope. The Types were deposited in the collections of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales of Madrid, Spain (Codes MNCN 16.01/18236, MNCN 16.01/18237 and MNCN 16.01/18238).

SystematicsTOP

Phylum Annelida

Familia Paraonidae Cerruti, 1909

Genus Paradoneis Hartman, 1965

Paradoneis idoiae n. sp.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:EA821956-368F-4274-857D-4ABDAAC1D88B

TYPE MATERIAL. Holotype (MNCN 16.01/18236), one complete specimen, collected outside of Abra de Bilbao (Bizkaia), station S-50 (43º23.415´N, 03º07.274´W), sand, 51 m depth, 01.05.2018.

Paratypes (MNCN 16.01/18237), three complete specimens, collected at the same time than the holotype. Paratype (MNCN 16.01/18238), one incomplete specimen, collected in Deba (Gipuzkoa), station L-D10 (43º19.594´N, 02º21.147´W), coarse sand, 42 m depth, 24.04.2018).

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL. Three complete specimens, collected at the same time than the holotype.

DESCRIPTION. Holotype longest complete specimen, measuring 8.62 mm long, 0.22 mm wide in branchial region for 84 chaetigers. Body relatively small, thin, circular in cross section whit numerous chaetigerous segments (Fig. 2A, 3A). Colour in alcohol white to light tan, with numerous small pigment granules on the dorsal and ventral surfaces (Fig. 2B).

Fig. 2.Paradoneis idoiae n. sp. Holotype (MNCN 16.01/18236). A. General appearance. B. Anterior end, dorsal view. C. Prostomium, ventral view. D. Modified lyriform chaeta. Scale bar: A: 640 µm; B: 200 µm; C: 135 µm; D: 12 µm.
Fig. 2.— Paradoneis idoiae n. sp. Holotipo (MNCN 16.01/18236). A. Aspecto general. B. Región anterior, vista dorsal. C. Prostomio, vista ventral. D. Seda modificada liriforme. Escalas: A: 640 µm; B: 200 µm; C: 135 µm; D: 12 µm.

 

Prostomium elongated, slightly longer than wide (1.2-1.4 times), oval to conical, slightly compressed laterally, lacking median antena. An apical sensorial organ present, in some specimens retracted and not visible. Eyes not visible. A pair of nuchal grooves on postero-lateral part of prostomium. Two dorsal ciliated bands present, one located on anteriormost region of the prostomium, and another posterior, visible at the level of nuchal slits (Fig. 3B). Posterior buccal lip with 3-4 longitudinal folds starting from anterior part of chaetiger 1 (Fig. 2C).

Fig. 3.Paradoneis idoiae n. sp. A. Paratype (MNCN 16.01/18238). Anterior end, dorsolateral view. B-F. Paratype (MNCN 16.01/18237). B. Prostomium, dorsal view. C. Prebranchial region, detail of notopodial postchaetal lobes of chaetigers 1-3 (arrows). D. Prebranchial-branchial region, detail of notopodial postchaetal lobes of chaetigers 3-5 (arrows). E. Branchial region, detail of notopodial postchaetal lobes of chaetigers 5-8 (arrows). F. Branchial-postbranchial region, detail of notopodial postchaetal lobes of chaetigers 8-11 (arrows). Abbreviations: cb: ciliated bands.
Fig. 3.— Paradoneis idoiae n. sp. A. Paratipo (MNCN 16.01/18238). Región anterior, vista dorsolateral. B-F. Paratipo (MNCN 16.01/18237). B. Prostomio, vista dorsal. C. Región prebranquial, detalle de los lóbulos notopodiales postsetales de los setígeros 1-3 (flechas). D. Región prebranquial-branquial, detalle de los lóbulos notopodiales postsetales de los setígeros 3-5 (flechas). E. Región branquial, detalle de los lóbulos notopodiales postsetales de los setígeros 5-8 (flechas). F. Región branquial-postbranquial, detalle de los lóbulos notopodiales postsetales de los setígeros 8-11 (flechas). Abreviaturas: cb: bandas ciliadas.

 

Notopodial postchaetal lobes present in all parapodia throught body; on most anterior three chaetigers short, tuberculate to conical, progressively increasing in length through prebranchial region (Fig. 3C); 2-3 times longer, digitiform, distally rounded in branchial region (Fig. 3D, 3E); becoming short, globular to conical in postbranchial region (Fig. 3F); clearly longer, filiform in posteriormost segments (Fig. 4A). Neuropodial postchaetal lobes absent.

Fig. 4.Paradoneis idoiae n. sp. A, C-D. Paratype (MNCN 16.01/18237). B. Paratype (MNCN 16.01/18238). A. Posterior region, detail of notopodial postchaetal lobes of posteriormost chaetigers (arrows). B. Branchial region, dorsolateral view. C. Right parapodium of chaetiger 53. D. Pygidial region, ventral view. Abbreviations: npl: notopodial postchaetal lobes; lcs: last chaetiger segment; pas: pre-anal segment; pg: pygidium.
Fig. 4.— Paradoneis idoiae n. sp. A, C-D. Paratipo (MNCN 16.01/18237). B. Paratipo (MNCN 16.01/18238). A. Región posterior, detalle de los lóbulos notopodiales postsetales de los últimos setígeros (flechas). B. Región branquial, vista dorsolateral C. Parápodo derecho del setígero 53. D. Región pigidial, vista ventral. Abreviaturas: npl: lóbulos notopodiales postsetales; lcs: último segmento setígero; pas: segmento pre-anal; pg: pigidio.

 

Branchiae beginning from chaetiger 4 in number of 5-6 pairs, elongated, cylindrical, distally rounded whit lateral margins ciliated; each equal or slightly longer than segment width (Fig. 4B).

Simple limbate capillary chaetae in both rami from chaetiger 1, continuing throughout body. 1-2 modified lyriform chaetae in lower part of notopodial chaetal fascicle from chaetiger 2-3 (Fig. 4C). Each has two unequally long tines; both tines similarly thick with inner sides spinous (Fig. 2D).

Pygidial region whit 7 cirri, 2 pairs corresponding to notopodial postchaetal lobes of two reduced segments, and 3 anal cirri, whit the mid-ventral one more robust and thicker than de two lateral ones, all long, filiform, similar in lenght (Fig. 4D).

REMARKS. Paradoneis idoiae n. sp. is most closely related to P. perdidoensis (McLelland & Gaston, 1994), a meiofaunal species from the coast of the Northern Gulf of Mexico, in having a reduced number of branchiae, three prebranchial chaetigers, modified notochaetae exclusively lyriform and a pygidial region with some pre-anal segments whitout chaetae. However, according to McLelland & Gaston (1994), adults of both species can be differentiated by the number of branchiae [3 (rarely 4) pairs in P. perdidoensis, vs. 5-6 pairs in P. idoiae n. sp.]; presence of eyespots on prostomium (present in P. perdidoensis, vs. absent in P. idoiae n. sp.); size of notopodial postchaetal lobes [prominent and uniform in length in all branchial chaetigers and first ones of the postbranchial region in P. perdidoensis, vs. unequal, relatively long and digitiform in all branchial chaetigers (except in the last, clearly shorter) and shorter in the adjacent postbranchial region in P. idoiae n. sp.]; shape of three anal cirri (all similar in P. perdidoensis, vs. one mid-ventral more robust and thicker than the two lateral ones in P. idoiae n. sp.); number of pre-anal segments (3 in P. perdidoensis, vs. 2 in P. idoiae n. sp.); and bathymetry [P. perdidoensis found in shallow waters (1-7 m depth), vs. P. idoiae n. sp. has been collected in circalittotal botoms (42-51 m depth)].

Paradoneis idoiae n. sp. is also similar to P. lyra, which was originally described from the coast of Ireland (N Atlantic Ocean). However, both species differ by the number of branchiae (5-6 pairs in P. idoiae n. sp., vs. up to 16 pairs in P. lyra); the morphology of branchiae (proportionally thin with same width throughout in P. idoiae n. sp., vs. proportionally more robust, basally wider in P. lyra); the size of branchiae (equal or slightly longer than segment width in P. idoiae n. sp., vs. shorter, equal to distance between branchial bases in P. lyra); and the size of anal cirri (long in P. idoiae n. sp., vs. relatively short in P. lyra).

HABITAT. In the Basque Contry, P. idoiae n. sp. found in sand and coarse sand sediment with moderate to low percentage of organic matter content, between 42 and 51 m depth. The biocenosis where this species was collected is characterized by the abundance of the polychaetes Pisione remota (Southern, 1914), Hesionura elongata Southern, 1914, Sphaerosyllis bulbosa Southern, 1914, Glycera lapidum Quatrefages, 1866, and Polygordius appendiculatus Fraipont, 1887, the oligochaeta Grania sp, the molluscs Limatula subauriculata (Montagu, 1808) and Asbjornsenia pygmaea (Lovén, 1846), the sea cucumber Leptosynapta minuta (Becher, 1906), nemertean and nematoda indeterminate.

DISTRIBUTION. Basque Country (NE Iberian Peninsula, SE Bay of Biscay), between 42 and 51 m depth.

ETYMOLOGY. This species is dedicated to Idoia Adarraga Marrodán, wife of the author.

Key to all known Paradoneis speciesTOP

The following dichotomous key has been elaborated based on the information included in Southern (1914), Day (1955), Hartman (1965), Glémarec (1966), Storch (1967), Hobson (1972), Imajima (1973), Strelzov (1973), Hartmann-Schröder (1974), Laubier & Ramos (1974), Amoureux (1985), Castelli (1985), Hartmann-Schröder & Rosenfeldt (1988), Mackie (1991), McLelland & Gaston (1994), De León-González et al. (2006), Aguirrezabalaga & Gil (2009), Sardá et al. (2009), Arriaga-Hernández et al. (2013) and López & Sikorski (2017).

1 Branchiae present 2
Branchiae absent Paradoneis abranchiata Hartman, 1965
2 1 pair of branchiae Paradoneis juvenalis (Hartmann-Schröder, 1974)
3 or more pairs of branchiae 3
3 Modified notochaetae of one kind 4
Modified notochaetae of two kinds, lyriform in anterior chaetigers, acicular on median and posterior ones 24
4 Modified notochaetae acicular, spinelike 5
Modified notochaetae lyriform 8
5 Modified notochaetae smooth acicular spines 6
Modified notochaetae acicular whit subterminal spine 7
6 Acicular spines straight, distally pointed; 6 prebranchial chaetigers; 8-10 pairs of branchiae Paradoneis drachi Laubier & Ramos, 1974
Acicular spines curved, distally rounded; 4-5 prebranchial chaetigers; 12-20 pairs of branchiae Paradoneis spinifera (Hobson, 1972)
7 Acicular spines beginning in prebranchial chaetigers, 3 prebranchial chaetigers; 3-4 pairs of branchiae Paradoneis perkinsi (McLelland & Gaston, 1994)
Acicular spines beginning in postbranchial chaetigers, 4 prebranchial chaetigers; 10 pairs of branchiae Paradoneis magdalenaensis (De León-González, Hernández-Guevara & Rodríguez-Valencia, 2006)
8 Posterior chaetigers whit spinelike neurochaetae 9
All neuropodia whit capillary chaetae 11
9 Up to 19 pairs of branchiae; notopodial postchaetal lobes on prebranchial region papiliform; pygidium whit 4 anal cirri Paradoneis andreae López & Sikorski, 2017
Up to 12 pairs of branchiae; notopodial postchaetal lobes on prebranchial region tuberculate or triangular; pygidium whit 3 anal cirri 10
10 Up to 12 pairs of branchiae, marginally ciliated; notopodial postchaetal lobes on prebranchial region tuberculate; 3 long anal cirri, two ventrolateral and one midventral shorter Paradoneis eliasoni Mackie, 1991
Up to 7 pairs of smooth branchiae; notopodial postchaetal lobes on prebranchial region distinctly triangular; 3 short, subequal anal cirri Paradoneis strelzovi De León-González & Díaz-Castañeda, 2011
11 3 prebranchial chaetigers 12
4 prebranchial chaetigers 22
12 Modified notochaetae starting on prebranchial region 13
Modified notochaetae starting on branchial region 17
13 More than 6 pairs of branchiae 14
Up to 6 pairs of branchiae 21
14 More than 20 pairs of branchiae Paradoneis nipponica Imajima, 1973
Fewer pairs of branchiae 15
15 Up to 17 pairs of branchiae, longer than segment width; notopodial postchaetal lobes on branchial and postbranchial region (except in the last 4-5 chaetigers) similar in size Paradoneis lyra guadalupensis Amoureux, 1985
Up to 12 pairs of branchiae, shorter than segment width; notopodial postchaetal lobes on postbranchial region (except in the last chaetigers) shorter than branchial ones 16
16 Notopodial postchaetal lobes on prebranchial region digitiform Paradoneis lyra (Southern, 1914)
Notopodial postchaetal lobes on prebranchial region small, oval Paradoneis brunnea Hartmann-Schröder & Rosenfeldt, 1988
17 Postbranchial lyriform notochaetae whit tines of similar thickness 18
Postbranchial lyriform notochaetae whit tines of unequal thickness Paradoneis ilvana Castelli, 1985
18 Notopodial postchaetal lobes on prebranchial region not visible Paradoneis lyra capensis Day, 1955
Notopodial postchaetal lobes on prebranchial region conspicuous 19
19 Notopodial postchaetal lobes on prebranchial region massive; 15-17 pairs of branchiae in adult specimens, slightly shorter than segment width Paradoneis forticirrata (Strelzov, 1973)
Notopodial poschaetal lobes on prebranchial region not massive; up to 14 pairs of branchiae 20
20 Notopodial postchaetal lobes on prebranchial region digitiform; branchiae shorter than segment width Paradoneis lyra (Southern, 1914)
Notopodial postchaetal lobes on prebranchial region short, conical-triangular; branchiae longer than segment width Paradoneis carmelitensis Arriaga-Hernández, Hernández-Alcántara & Solís-Weiss, 2013
21 3 (rarely 4) pairs of branchiae; all notopodial postchaetal lobes on branchial region uniform in length Paradoneis perdidoensis (McLelland & Gaston, 1994)
5-6 pairs of branchiae; last notopodial postchaetal lobe on branchial region clearly shorter than de rest ones Paradoneis idoiae n. sp.
22 Postbranchial lyriform notochaetae whit tines of similar thickness 23
Postbranchial lyriform notochaetae whit tines of unequal thickness Paradoneis bathyilvana Aguirrezabalaga & Gil, 2009
23 Up to 7 pairs of branchiae; postbranchial lyriform notochaetae whit long hairs basally Paradoneis hirsuta Sardá, Gil, Taboada & Gili, 2009
Up to 12 pairs of branchiae; postbranchial lyriform notochaetae whit the shaft smooth Paradoneis mikeli Aguirrezabalaga & Gil, 2009
24 Up to 19 pairs of branchiae, blunt distally; modified notochaetae lyriform in anterior chaetigers, acicular whit subterminal spine on median and posterior ones Paradoneis armata Glémarec, 1966
Up to 10 pairs of branchiae, rounded distally; modified notochaetae lyriform in anterior chaetigers, harpoonlike in posterior ones * Paradoneis harpagonea Storch, 1967

Note: Some authors like López-Jamar et al. (1987) and Lowell (2002) consider Paradoneis harpagonea as a junior synonym of Paradoneis armata.

DiscussionTOP

This discovery confirms the high presence of the Paraonidae family in the NE Iberian Peninsula. Around 40 species of this family have been reported on the Iberian coasts, of which 80% inhabit the Basque coast and adjacent areas. This percentage is even higher in the case of the Paradoneis genus. Including P. idoiae n. sp., eight of the nine Iberian Paradoneis species have been collected in this geographical area.

The identification of this new paraonid species on a common and relatively well studied sediment type on the Basque coast could be explained by possible misidentifications in the past. The foreign introduction via ballast water, although possible, seems less likely. The two stations where the specimens have been collected (S-50 and L-D10) are separated by 63 km, and more than 3 km away from the coast.

Among all species of the genus Paradoneis described to date in the SE Bay of Biscay, P. lyra is the best represented species. Their records range from shallow waters to 1772 m depth, showing preference for muddy and fine sands (Aguirrezabalaga, 2012). For many years, in the Bay of Biscay all those specimens of the genus Paradoneis without prostomial median antenna and having lyriform chaetae have been assigned to this species; however recent studies carried out by Aguirrezabalaga & Gil (2009) and Aguirrezabalaga (2012) suggest that other different species have also been included, such as P. ilvana, P. bathyilvana and P. mikeli. The same could have happened with P. idoiae n. sp.. It is possible that previous identifications of P. lyra in circalittoral samples from medium and coarse sands (Aguirrezabalaga, 1984; Martínez & Adarraga, 2001; Martínez et al., 2007), correspond actually to the new species.

 

AcknowledgmentsTOP

The autor would like to thanks AZTI-TECNALIA for providing the subtidal samples. We also thank to Guillermo San Martín (Departamento de Biología Animal, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid) and an anonymous reviewer for their constructive comments on the manuscript.

 

ReferencesTOP


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