ADDITIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE GENUS SYMMORPHUS WESMAEL, 1836 (HYMENOPTERA: VESPIDAE: EUMENINAE) IN INDIA WITH TWO NEW RECORDS OF SPECIES

P. G. Kumar1, L. Castro2,*, J. M. Carpenter3 & A. H. Sheikh4

1Western Ghats Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Kozhikode, Kerala–673006, India. ORCID iD: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2121-0165 – e-mail: kpgiris@gmail.com

2Av. Sanz Gadea 9, E-44002 Teruel, Spain. ORCID iD: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4635-6793 – e-mail: discoelius@discoelius.jazztel.es

3Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024, USA. ORCID iD: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6754-8028 – e-mail: carpente@amnh.org

4Department of Bioscience, Rani Durgavati Viswa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh-482001, India. ORCID iD: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6606-087X – e-mail: khushialtaf1986@gmail.com

*Corresponding author:

 

ABSTRACT

Two species of potter wasps of the genus Symmorphus Wesmael, 1836, namely Symmorphus (Symmorphus) alkimus alkimus Cumming & van der Vecht, 1986 and S. (S.) ambotretus Cumming, 1989, are recorded here for the first time from India. A key to the Indian species of the genus and an updated checklist of the species of Symmorphus of the Indian subcontinent are also provided.

Key words: Hymenoptera; Vespidae; Eumeninae; Symmorphus; first records; key; checklist; India.

 

RESUMEN

Novedades en el conocimiento del género Symmorphus Wesmael, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) en la India, con dos primeras citas de especies.

Se citan de la India por primera vez dos especies del género Symmorphus Wesmael, 1836, Symmorphus (Symmorphus) alkimus alkimus Cumming & van der Vecht, 1986 y S. (S.) ambotretus Cumming, 1989. Se incluyen una clave para las especies indias del género y una lista actualizada de las especies de Symmorphus del subcontinente indio.

Palabras clave: Hymenoptera; Vespidae; Eumeninae; Symmorphus; primeras citas; clave; catálogo; India.

 

Recibido/Received: 8/01/2018; Aceptado/Accepted: 6/06/2018; Publicado en línea/Published online: 28/08/2018

Cómo citar este artículo/Citation: Kumar, P. G., Castro, L., Carpenter, J. M. & Sheikh, A. H. 2018. Additions to the knowledge of the genus Symmorphus Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) in India with two new records of species. Graellsia, 74(2): e073. https://doi.org/10.3989/graellsia.2018.v74.196

Copyright: © 2018 SAM & CSIC. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.


 

CONTENT

IntroductionTOP

Wesmael (1836) described the genus Symmorphus as a subgenus of Odynerus Latreille, 1802 based on the species Odynerus elegans Wesmael, 1833 [known now as Symmorphus gracilis (Brullé, 1832)]. This genus, with 51 species in two subgenera (Parasymmorphus Cumming & van der Vecht, 1986 and Symmorphus s.s.), is distributed in the Palearctic, Oriental and Nearctic Regions and the northernmost Neotropical Region. Six species of Symmorphus have so far been reported from India. In this paper, two more species, namely Symmorphus (Symmorphus) alkimus alkimus Cumming & van der Vecht, 1986, and S. (S.) ambotretus Cumming, 1989, are recorded for the first time from India. Symmorphus (S.) alkimus alkimus is recorded from Kerala and S. (S.) ambotretus is recorded from Kashmir. A key to the Indian species and an updated checklist of the Indian subcontinent’s species are also provided.

Material and methodsTOP

The studied specimen of Symmorphus (Symmorphus) alkimus alkimus was collected at Muthappanpuzha (11°26′37.89″ N, 76°05′16.00″ E, alt. 52 m), in the Kozhikode district of Kerala, which is a part of the Western Ghats, one of the biodiversity hotspots of India. The specimens of S. (S.) ambotretus were collected at the village of Heff (33°75′94″ N, 74°80′39″ E, alt. 1594 m), in the Shopian district of Kashmir. The specimens were examined under a LEICA M60 stereozoom microscope and the images captured with a LEICA DFC-450 camera. The studied specimens have been added to the ‘National Zoological Collections’ of the Western Ghats Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Kozhikode, India (ZSIK).

Abbreviations used for museums

USNM = National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA
ZSIK = Western Ghats Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Kozhikode, India.

Abbreviations used for morphological terms

H = head
M = mesosoma
S = metasomal sterna
T = metasomal terga.

Results and discussionTOP

Symmorphus (Symmorphus) alkimus alkimus Cumming & van der Vecht, 1986

Figs. 1–6

Figs. 1-6.Symmorphus (Symmorphus) alkimus alkimus Cumming & van der Vecht, 1986, ♀. 1: Body, in profile. 2: Head, in frontal view. 3-4: Head and mesosoma, in dorsal (3) and lateral (4) view. 5-6: Metasoma, in dorsal (5) and lateral (6) view (Photographs by P.G. Kumar).
Figs. 1-6.Symmorphus (Symmorphus) alkimus alkimus Cumming & van der Vecht, 1986, ♀. 1: Cuerpo de perfil. 2: Cabeza en vista frontal. 3-4: Cabeza y mesosoma, en vistas dorsal (3) y lateral (4). 5-6: Metasoma, en vistas dorsal (5) y lateral (6) (Fotos de P.G. Kumar).

 

Symmorphus alkimus Cumming & van der Vecht, 1986: 23, 28, fig. 3, ♀, ♂ (in subgenus Symmorphus) - “SRI LANKA: Kan. [Kandy] Dist./Udawattakele” (holotype ♀ USNM); also from four other localities.

Symmorphus alkimus alkimusCumming, 1989: 5, 21 (key), 27 (in subgenus Symmorphus).

MATERIAL EXAMINED. INDIA: Kerala, Kozhikode district, Muthappanpuzha, 1♀, 26.iv.2012, Coll. P. Girish Kumar, Regd. No. ZSI/WGRC/I.R.-INV.10206.

DIAGNOSIS. ♀. Median area of occipital carina without submedial incisions, slightly pointed medially; metanotum nearly vertical; T1 distinctly broad, medial postcarinal length 0.47-0.49x apical width; base of T2 obtusely angulate; base of S2 abruptly truncate; apical margin of T2 & S2 depressed; female clypeus shallowly emarginate apically; propodeal valvula short posteriorly, fused distally to posterolateral projection of submarginal carina; mesepisternum with epicnemial carina dorsally obsolete, not extended to posterolateral margin of pronotum; female mandible with 5 teeth.

COLOUR DESCRIPTION. ♀. Black with yellow as follows: transverse band at base of clypeus; interantennal spot; postocular dot; spot at base of ventral side of scape; pair of spots on dorsal face of pronotum; pair of spots on scutellum; spot on top of mesopleuron; tegula posteriorly; outer surface of tibiae (on hind tibia not extended to apex); narrow apical band on T1; narrow subapical band on T2 and S2. Tarsi pale brown basally to dark reddish brown apically. Wings lightly infuscate.

DIMENSIONS. Body length (H+M+T1+T2): ♀, 7.5 mm; Forewing length: 6.5 mm.

DISTRIBUTION. India (first record): Kerala; Sri Lanka. A second subspecies, S. alkimus dialeukus Cumming, 1989, has been described from the Indonesian island of Sumatra (Cumming, 1989).

COMMENTS. The single female specimen examined here from Kerala has more extensive yellow markings on the body than the known material of the Sri Lankan population (comparison based on the descriptions in: Cumming & van der Vecht, 1986; Cumming, 1989). The additional yellow markings present in the Kerala specimen are as follows: transverse band at base of clypeus, spot at base of ventral side of scape, pair of spots on dorsal face of pronotum, pair of spots on scutellum, spot on top of mesopleuron and tegula posteriorly. These differences may be due to geographical isolation of Kerala from Sri Lanka. The colour differences between the Kerala specimen and the Sri Lankan population are perhaps significant, but it is not easy to decide, especially based on just one specimen, whether to describe a new subspecies. There is not enough information available about the possible colour variation of the Sri Lankan population (known only from the type material), and neither do we know if there is perhaps a cline across southern India, with a more xanthic form at the western end (Kerala) and a more melanistic form in the east (Sri Lanka), so, for the time being, we are identifying our Kerala specimen as Symmorphus alkimus alkimus.

Symmorphus (Symmorphus) ambotretus Cumming, 1989

Figs. 718

Figs. 7-12.Symmorphus (Symmorphus) ambotretus Cumming, 1989, ♀. 7: Body, in profile. 8: Head, in frontal view. 9: Head and mesosoma, in dorsal view. 10: Metasoma, in dorsal view. 11: T1, in dorsal view. 12: Metasoma, in lateral view (Photographs by P.G. Kumar).
Figs. 7-12.— Symmorphus (Symmorphus) ambotretus Cumming, 1989, ♀. 7: Cuerpo de perfil. 8: Cabeza en vista frontal. 9: Cabeza y mesosoma en vista dorsal. 10: Metasoma en vista dorsal. 11: T1 en vista dorsal. 12: Metasoma en vista lateral (Fotos de P.G. Kumar).

 

Figs. 13-18.Symmorphus (Symmorphus) ambotretus Cumming, 1989, ♂. 13: Body, in profile. 14: Head, in frontal view. 15: Apical antennal segments. 16: Mesosoma, in lateral view. 17: Propodeum. 18: S1 (Photographs by P.G. Kumar).
Figs. 13-18.— Symmorphus (Symmorphus) ambotretus Cumming, 1989, ♂. 13: Cuerpo de perfil. 14: Cabeza en vista frontal. 15: Últimos segmentos antenales. 16: Mesosoma en vista lateral. 17: Propodeo. 18: S1 (Fotos de P.G. Kumar).

 

Symmorphus ambotretus Cumming, 1989: 5, 21 (key), 28, ♀, ♂ (in subgenus Symmorphus) - “Mt[.]Omei [Emei Shan]/Szechuen [Sichuan Province] China/4400 ft” (holotype ♀ USNM); also from another locality; and Nepal; fig. 11, 13. — Additional citations: Kim & Lee, 2002: 284 (key), 286, figs. 1-6 (Korea). – Gusenleitner, 2010: 702, fig. 14 (compared to S. laoticus n. sp.). – Li & Chen, 2014: 17 (China), 23 (key). – Kim, 2017: 243, figs. 5A, 5B, 5C, key.

MATERIAL EXAMINED. INDIA: Jammu & Kashmir, Shopian district, Heff Village, 2♀♀ & 1♂, 18.viii.2017, Coll. Altaf Hussain Sheikh, Regd. Nos. ZSI/WGRC/I.R.-INV.10207–10209.

DIAGNOSIS. ♀. Occipital carina with 2 submedial incisions that delimit a blunt median tooth; T1 slightly broad, medial postcarinal length 0.51-0.57x apical width; metasomal segment 2 in profile with base of tergum obtusely angulate and sternum abruptly truncate posteriad of basal sulcus; female clypeus shallowly emarginate apically; propodeal valvula short posteriorly, fused distally to posterolateral projection of submarginal carina; mesepisternum with epicnemial carina dorsally obsolete, not extended to posterolateral margin of pronotum; female mandible with 5 teeth.

COLOUR DESCRIPTION. ♀. Black with orange red as follows: interantennal spot and postocular spot very small and vague; pair of spots on dorsal face of pronotum; pair of vague spots on scutellum (absent in one female); vague spot on top of mesopleuron; apical band of T1; subapical band of T2 and S2. Tarsal claws brown. Wings lightly infuscate.

♂. In coloration similar to female except as follows: clypeus yellow except black apical margin; mandible yellow except black outer margins; scape with basal yellow spot; interantennal spot yellow; legs with line on outer surface of tibia and basitarsus yellow.

DIMENSIONS. Body length (H+M+T1+T2): ♀, 7.5-8 mm; Forewing length: 7.5 mm; ♂, 6.2 mm; Forewing length: 6 mm.

DISTRIBUTION. India (first record): Jammu & Kashmir; Nepal; China: Sichuan, Yunnan, Chongqing, Shaanxi; Korea.

Key to the Indian species of the genus Symmorphus (modified from Cumming, 1989)TOP

1 Propodeal valvula produced posteriorly, free distally from posterolateral projection of submarginal carina; mesepisternum with epicnemial carina complete, extended to posterolateral margin of pronotum; female mandible with 4 teeth; metasomal segment 2 in profile with base of tergum obtusely angulate and sternum abruptly truncate posteriad of basal sulcus; T1 elongate, medial postcarinal length 0.73x apical width; occipital carina with 2 submedial incisions that delimit a sharp median tooth; interocellar area not raised S. (Parasymmorphus) parvilineatus (Cameron, 1904)
Propodeal valvula short posteriorly, fused distally to posterolateral projection of submarginal carina; mesepisternum with epicnemial carina dorsally obsolete, not extended to posterolateral margin of pronotum or absent; female mandible with 5 teeth; other characters partly or completely different 2
2 Metasomal segment 2 in profile with base of tergum obtusely angulate and sternum abruptly truncate posteriad of basal sulcus; female clypeus shallowly emarginate apically 3
Metasomal segment 2 in profile with base of tergum gradually rounded and sternum flat to slightly convex posteriad of basal sulcus; female clypeus shallowly to deeply emarginate apically 4
3 Occipital carina with 2 submedial incisions that delimit a blunt median tooth; T1 slightly broad, medial postcarinal length 0.51-0.57x apical width; maculation orange-yellow to orange red S. (Symmorphus) ambotretus Cumming, 1989
Occipital carina without submedial incisions, slightly pointed medially; T1 distinctly broad, medial postcarinal length 0.47-0.49x apical width; maculation yellow S. (S.) alkimus alkimus Cumming & van der Vecht, 1986
4 Pseudosternum of mesopleuron with high reflexed border along anterior margin; pronotal carina obsolete along entire width of dorsum of pronotum; S1 without basal carina; S2 in profile with base slightly convex posteriad of basal sulcus S. (S.) gracilis (Brullé, 1832)
Pseudosternum of mesopleuron with low to moderately low reflexed border along anterior margin; pronotal carina present at least laterally or medially along dorsum of pronotum, or complete; S1 with or without basal carina; other characters partly or completely different 5
5 Mesosoma with sparse to moderately dense long setae in addition to short pubescence 6
Mesosoma without long setae in addition to short pubescence 7
6 S1 with basal carina (slightly obscure in some specimens); propodeal valvula pointed dorsally, extended apically along posterolateral projection of submarginal carina as a prominent acute tooth; small to moderate size species (H+M+T1+T2 = 8.5-10 mm); maculation orange-yellow S. (S.) violaceipennis Giordani Soika, 1966
S1 without basal carina; propodeal valvula somewhat rounded dorsally, barely extended apically along posterolateral projection of submarginal carina; moderate to large size species (H+M+T1+T2 = 10.5-14 mm); maculation white to yellow S. (S.) crassicornis (Panzer, 1798)
7 S1 with lateral oblique ridges low and barely raised basally, median longitudinal ridge prominent; propodeum with medial length of dorsal shelf 2.01-2.63x length of trans-scutal sulcus S. (S.) nipteroides Cumming, 1989
S1 with lateral oblique ridges raised basally to height of posterior margin of basal carina, median longitudinal ridge indistinct; propodeum with medial length of dorsal shelf 1.13-1.38x length of trans-scutal sulcus S. (S.) tukvarensis (Meade-Waldo, 1910)

Checklist of the Indian subcontinent species of the genus SymmorphusTOP

1.  Symmorphus (Parasymmorphus) parvilineatus (Cameron, 1904) — India (Meghalaya*, Sikkim); Laos. *Bequaert (1928) and Giordani Soika (1941) reported this species from “Shillong (Assam)”. At present, Shillong is in the state of Meghalaya.
2.  Symmorphus (Symmorphus) alkimus alkimus Cumming & van der Vecht, 1986 — India (new record) (Kerala); Sri Lanka.
3.  Symmorphus (Symmorphus) ambotretus Cumming, 1989 — India (new record) (Jammu & Kashmir); Nepal. Elsewhere: China: Sichuan, Yunnan, Chongqing, Shaanxi; Korea.
4.  Symmorphus (Symmorphus) crassicornis (Panzer, 1798) — India (Himachal Pradesh). Elsewhere: Sweden, Finland, Denmark, England, Ireland, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, Belarus, Lithuania, Russia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China (Manchuria).
5.  Symmorphus (Symmorphus) gracilis (Brullé, 1832) — India (Jammu & Kashmir). Elsewhere: Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, England, Wales, Scotland, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, Belarus, Lithuania, Romania, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia, Greece, Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iran, Armenia, Kazakhstan.
6.  Symmorphus (Symmorphus) lamriensis Gusenleitner, 2010 — Nepal.
7.  Symmorphus (Symmorphus) nipteroides Cumming, 1989 — India (Jammu & Kashmir).
8.  Symmorphus (Symmorphus) tukvarensis (Meade-Waldo, 1910) — India (Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim).
9.  Symmorphus (Symmorphus) violaceipennis Giordani Soika, 1966 — India (Sikkim), Nepal; China (Yunnan, Sichuan).

AcknowledgementsTOP

The authors are grateful to Dr. Kailash Chandra, Director, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, and Dr. P.M. Sureshan, Officer-in-Charge, Western Ghats Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Kozhikode, for providing facilities and encouragement.

 

ReferencesTOP


Bequaert, J., 1928. A study of certain types of diplopterous wasps in the collection of the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 10, 2: 138–176. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222932808672864
Cumming, J. M., 1989. Classification and evolution of the eumenine wasp genus Symmorphus Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 148: 1–168.
Cumming, J. M. & Vecht, J. van der, 1986. New Oriental species of Symmorphus Wesmael, with description of a new subgenus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Eumeninae). Entomologische Berichten, 46: 23–32.
Giordani Soika, A., 1941. Studi sui vespidi solitari. Bollettino della Società Veneziana di Storia Naturale, 2(3): 130–280.
Gusenleitner, J., 2010. Bemerkenswerte Faltenwespen-Funde aus der orientalischen Region Teil 5 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Eumeninae). Linzer biologische Beiträge, 42(1): 695–709.
Kim, J. K., 2017. Descriptions of three new species of the genus Symmorphus Wesmael, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from South Korea, with an updated revised key to Far Eastern species. Zootaxa, 4350(2): 234–250. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4350.2.2
Kim, J. K. & Lee, S. G., 2002. Taxonomic review of Korean eumenine wasp genus Symmorphus Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae). Insecta Koreana, 19(3-4): 283–297.
Li, T. & Chen, B., 2014. The taxonomic accounts of the genus Symmorphus Wesmael (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) from China, with descriptions of three new species. ZooKeys, 389: 9–26. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.389.7045
Wesmael, C., 1836. Supplément à la Monographie des Odynères de la Belgique. Bulletin de l’Académie Royale des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de Bruxelles, 3: 44–51.



Copyright (c) 2018 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.


Contacte con la revista mcnp115@mncn.csic.es

Soporte técnico soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es