A NEW SPECIES OF APHIS LINNAEUS, 1758 (HEMIPTERA, APHIDIDAE) COLLECTED ON GYMNOPHYTON CLOS (APIACEAE) IN ARGENTINA

Sara I. López Ciruelos1, Jaime Ortego2, M. Pilar Mier Durante3 & Juan M. Nieto Nafría4

1Departamento de Biodiversidad y Gestión Ambiental, área de Zoología. Universidad de León. 24071 León (España);
sara.i.l.c@hotmail.com; ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0032-5302

2INTA EEA Mendoza. San Martín, 3853. 5507 Luján de Cuyo (Mendoza, Argentina);
ortegojaime@yahoo.com.ar; ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9738-7085

3Departamento de Biodiversidad y Gestión Ambiental, área de Zoología. Universidad de León. 24071 León (España);
mpmied@unileon.es; ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7834-1778

4Departamento de Biodiversidad y Gestión Ambiental, área de Zoología. Universidad de León. 24071 León (España);
jmnien@unileon.es; ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6714-2415

 

SUMMARY

Aphis cuyana López Ciruelos & Ortego, sp. n. (Aphididae, Aphidinae) is described from apterous and alate viviparous females collected on Gymnophyton polycephalum (Apiaceae) in localities of the Argentinean provinces of La Rioja, San Juan and Mendoza. A table with differences of the apterous viviparous females of the new species from the species of Aphis and its close genera Andinaphis and Protaphis known in South America is presented.

http://urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:4834FEF4-171C-4EBD-BF91-2137B517491E

Key words: Aphids; new species; South America; Aphis; Andinaphis; Protaphis.

 

RESUMEN

Una nueva especie de Aphis Linnaeus, 1758 (Hemiptera, Aphididae) recogida sobre Gymnophyton Clos (Apiaceae) in Argentina

Se describe Aphis cuyana López Ciruelos & Ortego, sp. n. (Aphididae, Aphidinae) a partir de hembras vivíparas ápteras y aladas recogidas sobre Gymnophyton polycephalum (Apiaceae) en localidades de las provincias argentinas de La Rioja, San Juan y Mendoza. Se presenta una tabla con las diferencias de las hembras vivíparas ápteras de la nueva especie con las de Aphis y sus géneros vecinos Andinaphis y Protaphis, conocidas en América del Sur.

Palabras clave: Pulgones; áfidos; especie nueva; América del Sur; Aphis; Andinaphis; Protaphis.

 

Recibido/Received: 1/07/2016; Aceptado/Accepted: 16/11/2016; Publicado en línea/Published online: 24/02/2017

Cómo citar este artículo/Citation: López Ciruelos, S. I., Ortego, J., Mier Durante, M. P. & Nieto Nafría, J. M. 2017. A new species of Aphis Linnaeus, 1758 (Hem. Aphididae) collected on Gymnophyton Clos (Apiaceae) in Argentina. Graellsia, 73(1): e055. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/graellsia.2017.v73.171

Copyright: © 2017 SAM y CSIC. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-by) Spain 3.0 License.


 

CONTENT

IntroductionTOP

Many species belonging to family Apiaceae are host plants for species of aphids, included species of Aphis Linnaeus, 1758 (Aphididae Aphidina), which have different distribution and are diverse in trophic preferences, some species are endemic and other cosmopolitan, several ones are polyphagous and other are more or less stenophagous. No records of aphids exist on plants of apiaceous genus Gymnophyton Clos. This genus is South American and include few species, only six in the South Cone (Blackman & Eastop, 2016; Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, 2016).

Aphids belonging to genus Aphis have been collected in last years in Argentinean localities on Gymnophyton polycephalum (Gillies & Hook.) Clos, which is known in the provinces of Salta, Catamarca, La Rioja, San Juan and Mendoza, from North to South (Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, 2016). They present peculiar features that permit to us establish a new species (see above the taxonomic discussion).

Results and discussionTOP

Aphis cuyana López Ciruelos & Ortego, sp. n.

http://urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:2A81E7F3-D0E5-4A99-95D4-562511F70A91

TYPE MATERIAL: Holotype, apterous viviparous female (labelled with the number 5 of the sample ARG-752), collected on Gymnophyton polycephalum, ARGENTINA, La Rioja, Cuesta de Miranda (29º 21’ S, 67º 47’ W, 2010 m), 26-November-2002, Mier Durante, Ortego & Nieto Nafría leg., Universidad de León collection (Leon, Spain). Paratypes, 21 apterous viviparous females and 2 alate viviparous females collected at same time than the holotype; 17 apterous viviparous females and 8 alate viviparous females, same plant, locality and collectors, 2-November-2006 (sample ARG-1101); 20 apterous viviparous females, same plant and collectors, ARGENTINA, La Rioja, Paso Pircas Negras (28º 34’ S, 68º 44’ W, 2910 m), 25-November-2002 (ARG-739); 26 apterous viviparous females and 1 alate viviparous female, same plant and collectors, ARGENTINA, San Juan, pie del Paso Agua Negra, (30º 22’ S, 69º 30’ W, 2700 m), 24-November-2002 (ARG-732); 42 apterous viviparous females and 1 alate viviparous female, same plant, date and collectors, ARGENTINA, San Juan, Paso Agua Negra, (30º 22’ S, 69º 35’ W, 2960 m), 24-November-2002 (ARG-728); 66 apterous viviparous females (all “small” form), same plant, ARGENTINA, Mendoza, Uspallata (32º 34’ S, 69º 19’ W, 1900 m), 7-January-2013, J. Ortego leg. (ARG-1705); Universidad de León and Natural History Museum (London, United Kingdom).

APTEROUS VIVIPAROUS FEMALES, big form (Figs. 1A, 1E): From 127 specimens, which 76 have been measured. When alive caramel to brown with dorsal bright spots. When mounted, specimens have parts and sclerites more or less pigmented (see above). Metric and meristic features in Table 1. Head, including clypeus and mandibular and maxillar lames and rostrum brown. Frons nearly flat or sometimes gently sinuated. Antennal segment I, II, VI and apex of V more or less dark brown, like head. Other antennal segments pale. Rostrum reaches nearly to the hind leg coxae. Its ultimate segment is darker than the other and has 2 accessory setae lateral to grove. Coxae, trochanters, tarsi, apex of tibiae, brown like head; front and medial femora homogenously light brown, paler than coxae; hind femora with half or two thirds distal part darker than anterior femora and as dark as coxae and trochanters. Prothorax and mesothorax with individual brown entire or fragmented transverse dorsal band. Metathorax with brown fragmented transverse band, sometimes reduced to marginal sclerites. First segment of tarsi with 2 or 3 setae. Dorsum of abdominal segments 1–6 with individual spinopleural transversal and irregularly edged patches, which can be coalescent one another in different ways, come up to form a patch with unsclerotized intersegmental spots. Abdominal segments 1–4 without marginal sclerites. Small antesiphuncular and postsiphuncular patches, sometimes fragmented in sclerites. Abdominal segments 7 and 8 with individual transverse bands carrying spinules. All segmental sclerotization as dark as head. Intersegmental and spiracular sclerites always conspicuous and dark brown. Hind tibae of several specimens of spring sample ARG-1101 carries 1–7 (exceptionally up to 12 and one specimen with 17 and 25) well defined, small and pale scent plates; these specimens also carry an exceptional higher number setae on abdominal segment 8. Marginal prothoracic tubercles, smaller than the triommatidium, but more voluminous than marginal tubercles on abdominal segments 1 and 7. Intermediate abdominal segments without marginal tubercles. Siphunculi tapered on proximal half and subcylindrical on distal one, little longer than cauda, homogeneously dark brown to black, darker other body part, with scales and small flange. Genital and anal plates dark brown. Cauda finger-shaped, with slight constriction and medial edges more or less parallel. Setae in general robust and pointed.

Table 1.— Metric and meristic features of apterous (“big” and “small” forms) and alate viviparous females of Aphis cuyana López Ciruelos & Ortego, sp. n. Used abbreviations: apterous viv. fem., apterous viviparous females; alate viv. fem., alate viviparous females; Ant., Antennal; b. d., basal diameter; segm., segment or segments.
Tabla 1.— Características métricas y merísticas de las hembras vivíparas ápteras (formas “grande” y “pequeña”) y aladas de Aphis cuyana López Ciruelos & Ortego, sp. n. Abreviaturas: apterous viv. fem., hembras vivíparas ápteras; alate viv. fem., hembras vivíparas aladas; Ant., Antenal; b. d., diámetro basal; segm., segmento o segmentos.
  apterous viv. fem. “big” form apterous viv. fem. “small” form alate viv. fem.
Body [mm] 1.500–2.325 1.300–1.475 1.500–2.125
Body / hind tibia [times] 1.512–2.270 2.000–2.292 1.455–2.576
Antenna [mm] 1.00–1.50 0.74–0.85 1.27–1.53
Antenna / Body [times] 0.548–0.830 0.535–0.600 0.624–0.883
Ant. segm. III [mm] 0.23–0.37 0.16–0.20 0.30–0.38
Ant. segm. III / Ant. segm. VI processus terminalis [times] (1.02)1.10–1.77 1.10–1.39 1.28–1.74
Ant. segm. IV [mm] 0.15–0.29 0.11–0.14 0.24–0.33
Ant. segm. V [mm] 0.18–0.29 0.11–0.15 0.23–0.29
Ant. segm. VI base [mm] 0.11–0.16 0.10–0.15 0.13–0.16
Ant. segm. VI processus terminalis [mm] 0.17–0.26 0.13–0.16 0.20–0.26
Ant. segm. VI processus terminalis / Ant. segm. VI base [times] 1.18–2.14 0.97–1.52 1.50–1.76
Ultimate rostral segm. [mm] 0.12–0.15 0.11–0.12 0.12–0.13
Ultimate rostral segm. / its basal width [times] (2.18)2.27–3.13 2.44–2.88 2.30–3.12
Ultimate rostral segm. / Ant. segm. VI base [times] 0.80–1.17 0.72–1.10 0.75–0.92
Ultimate rostral segm. / hind tarsus, 2nd segm. [times] 0.76–0.89(1.00) 0.85–0.96 0.82–0.96
Hind femur [mm] 0.45–0.68 0.35–0.40 0.40–0.55
Hind tibia [mm] 0.80–1.20 0.60–0.70 0.83–1.12
Hind tarsus, 2nd segm. [mm] 0.13–0.16 0.11–0.14 0.13–0.14
Siphunculus [mm] (0.18)0.20–0.29 0.12–0.15 0.14–0.22
Siphunculus / its basal width [times] 2.05–3.92 2.15–3.63 3.0–5.0
Siphunculus / its middle width [times] 2.68–4.60(4.90) 3.11–3.71 3.5–5.0
Siphunculus / Cauda [times] 1.00–1.41 0.86–1.32 0.97–1.18
Cauda [mm] 0.15–0.23 0.11–0.15 0.13–0.18
Cauda / its basal width [times] 1.03–1.86(1.96) 0.73–1.23 1.00–1.28
Setae on …      
… Vertex [μm] 22–33 17–25 20–28
… Vertex / b. d. Ant. segm. III [times] 0.9–1.4 1.0–1.7 0. 9–1.4
… Ant. segm. III [number] 5–11 5–7 (5)6–9
… Ant. segm. III [μm] 12–20 10–15 12–18
… Ant. segm. III / b. d. Ant. segm. III [times] 0.5–0.9 0.6–1.0 0.6–0.9
… Hind trochanter, posterior [μm] 25–42(48) 25–38 20–30
Hind trochanter, posterior / trochantero-femoral suture [times] 0.4–0.9 0.6–1.0 0.4–0.7
… Hind femur, dorsal [μm] 15–35 15–25 17–25
… Hind femur, dorsal / b. d. Ant. segm. III [times] 0.6–1.6 1.0–1.5(1.7) 0.9–1.4
… Hind femur, ventral [μm] 17–38 17–25 20–28
… Hind femur, ventral / b. d. Ant. segm. III [times] 0.8–1.7 1.1–1.5 1.0–1.6
… Hind tibia, at middle, dorsal [μm] 20–43 25–30 17–28
… Hind tibia, at middle, dorsal / hind tibial diameter at middle [times] 0.2–0.5 0.3–0.4 0.2–0.3
… Hind tarsi, 1st segm. [number] 2–3 2–3 3
… Abdominal segm. 2–4, marginal [μm ] 22–32 17–25 20–30
… Abdominal segm. 2–4, marginal / b. d. Ant. segm. III [times] 0.9–1.5 1.1–1.7 1.1–1.5
… Abdominal segm. 8 [number] (2)3–4(9) 2–4 2–6
… Abdominal segm. 8 [μm] 30–55(60) 27.5–55(60) 45–55(60)
… Abdominal segm. 8 / b. d. Ant. segm. III [times] 1.2–2.8 1.8–3.7 2.2–3.1
… Genital plate, discal [number] 2–5 2–4 2–7
… Genital plate, marginal [number] 10–12 10–16 12–18
… Cauda [number] 5–10 5–7 (6)7–10

Fig. 1.Aphis cuyana López Ciruelos & Ortego, sp. n. A, E, apterous viviparous female, “big” form; B, F, apterous viviparous female, “small” form; C, D, alate viviparous female. A, B, habitus; E, F, cauda; C, dorsum of abdomen; D, antenna. Scale bar: a — A, B, C; b — D, E, F.
Fig. 1.Aphis cuyana López Ciruelos & Ortego, sp. n. A, E, hembra vivípara áptera, forma “grande”; B, F, hembra vivípara áptera, forma “pequeña”; C, D, hembra vivípara alada. A, B, habitus; E, F, cola; C, dorso del abdomen; D, antena. Escalas: a — A, B, C; b — D, E, F.

 

APTEROUS VIVIPAROUS FEMALES, small form (Figs. 1B, 1F): From 66 specimens, which 13 have been measured. When alive similar to “big” females, but without bright spots. When mounted very pale because have not segmental dorsal sclerotization (reduced to a small transverse band on abdominal segment 8 and sometime setiferous pale sclerites on segment 7), and the pigmentation of intersegmental and spiracular sclerites, antennae in general, rostrum, trochanters and femora is more less intense than the “big” females. Siphunculi subcylindrical and cauda triangular. Metric and meristic features in Table 1.

ALATE VIVIPAROUS FEMALES (Figs. 1C, 1D): From 12 specimens, which 11 have been measured. Similar to apterous viviparous “big” females, more intense and wide pigmented. Ocelli surrounded by a dark ring. Segments of antennal flagellum with strong imbrication. Antennal segment III with 6–12 secondary sensoria ventrally aligned along the segment, and segment IV sometimes with 2–4 secondary sensoria. Spinopleural patches slender and completely individualized. Round marginal patches on abdominal segments 2–6. One specimen of sample 732 has 1 marginal tubercle on abdominal segment 2. Siphunculi subcilindrical. Other quantitative features in Table 1.

BIOLOGY: Gymnophyton polycephalum (Gilles & Hook.) Clos is at the moment the only host plant for Aphis cuyana sp. n. It should be holocyclic without host alternation, as usual in the species of this genus in mountain areas of Argentina. The species presents during summer one or several generations of apterous viviparous females that are smaller and paler than the spring or autumnal generations, adjectival aestivating, dwarf, small, like the South American A. mendocina Mier Durante & Ortego, 2006, A. eucollinae López Ciruelos & Ortego, 2016, A. melosae Mier Durante & Ortego, 1999, or the North American A. rubicola Oestlund, 1887, or several European species, e.g. A. hieracii Schrank, 1801, A. confusa Walker, 1849, A. lambersi (Börner, 1940), A. ruborum (Börner, 1931) (see Mier Durante & Ortego 1999; Blackman & Eastop, 2016).

DISTRIBUTION: It is possible that the new species is present in the area where its host plant grows.

ETYMOLOGY: The specific epithet cuyana, is an adjective that means inhabiting on the Argentinean region of Cuyo (entire or in part current provinces of San Juan, San Luis, Mendoza and La Rioja).

TAXONOMIC DISCUSSION: Aphis cuyana sp. n. is the 56th species of Aphis, in current sense of genus, recorded from South America, twenty-two are introduced and 34 are native (Ortego et al., 2013; López Ciruelos et al., 2016; Nieto Nafría et al., 2016a, 2016b; González Rodríguez et al., 2017). To establish the taxonomic identity of the new species, several characteristic of its apterous viviparous “big” and “small” females are confronted with selected more evident characteristics of other 55 species of Aphis and three close relatives belonging to genera Andinaphis and Protaphis (Table 2); firstly (1) presence (in A. cuyana) or lack of marginal tubercles on abdominal segment 7 and presence (in A. cuyana) or absence of posterior setae on genital plate, or (2) lack (in A. cuyana) or presence of marginal tubercles on abdominal segments 2–4, or (3) lack (in A. cuyana) or presence of marginal sclerotization on abdominal segments 2–4, and subsequently other qualitative or quantitative features if it were necessary.

Table 2.— Comparative table of “big” and “small” apterous viviparous females of Aphis cuyana López Ciruelos & Ortego, sp. n. with apterous viviparous females of the species of Aphis [A.] and two relatives genera Andinaphis [An.] and Protaphis [P.] currently known in South America. In smaller font and into brackets: accessory features. Abbreviations: ABD, abdominal segment; ANT III, antennal segment III; ANT VI b., antennal segment VI base; ANT VI p.t., antennal segment VI processus terminalis; h.t.II, hind tarsus second segment; u.r.s., ultimate rostral segment; introd., introduced species.
Tabla 2.— Tabla comparativa de las hembras vivíparas ápteras, formas “grande” y “pequeña”, de Aphis cuyana López Ciruelos & Ortego, sp. n. con las hembras vivíparas ápteras de especies de Aphis [A.] y de dos géneros próximos, Andinaphis [An.] y Protaphis [P.], conocidas actualmente en Sudamérica. En letra más pequeña y entre corchetes: características secundarias. Abreviaturas: ABD, segmento abdominal; ANT III, artejo antenal III; ANT VI b., artejo antenal VI base; ANT VI p.t., artejo antenal VI filamento terminal; h.t.II, segundo artejo de los tarsos posteriores; u.r.s., artejo apical del rostro; introd., especie introducida.
aphid species differential characters with the “big” apterous viviparous females of A. cuyana sp. n. differential characters with the “small” apterous viviparous females of A. cuyana sp. n. host plant component
An. paradoxa (Mier Durante, Ortego & Nieto Nafría, 1997) ABD 7 (and also ABD 1 and prothorax) without marginal tubercles Senecio (Asteraceae) native
A. acaenaevora Mier Durante & Ortego, 1998 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization ABD 2–4 with marginal tubercles Acaena (Rosaceae) native
A. acuminata Nieto Nafría & von Dohlen, 2016 discal plate or wide spinopleural patch plus marginal sclerites on ABD 2–4 Adesmia (Fabaceae) native
A. affinis Del Guercio, 1911 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization ANT VI p.t. 1.7 times ANT VI b. at least; u.r.s. longer than h.t.II Mentha and other Lamiaceae introd.: diverse origin
A. alstroemeriae Essig, 1953 u.r.s. 1.0 times h.t.II at least; setae on ANT III longer than the basal width of ANT III. Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) native
A. amaranthi Holman, 1974 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization ANT VI p.t. 2.2 times ANT VI b. at least; 8–10 caudal setae Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) introd.: Nearctic origin
A. asclepiadis Fitch, 1851 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization ANT III–V and siphunculi rough species of numerous families introd.: Nearctic origin
A. berberidorum Ortego & Mier Durante, 1997 ABD 2–4 with marginal sclerites, sometimes part of a dorsoabdominal plate ABD 7–8 with individual transverse bands; cauda pointed Berberis (Berberidaceae) native
A. biobiensis Nieto Nafría & Mier Durante, 2016 ANT III rough, siphunculi also rough and 1.4–1.8 times cauda. Adesmia (Fabaceae) native
A. carrilloi Ortego, Mier Durante & Nieto Nafría, 2013 ABD 2–4 with marginal tubercles Gunnera (Gunneraceae) native
A. cinerea Nieto Nafría & Ortego, 2002 sometimes with marginal sclerites; cauda finger-shaped with marked proximal straight and pointed apex; dense white wax powder when alive Lathyrus (Fabaceae) native
A. conflicta Nieto Nafría, Ortego & Mier Durante, 2008 marginal sclerites usually present, and also frequently spinopleural patch or discal plate; [u.r.s. 1.0 times h.t.II at least; setae on ANT III 20 μm at least] u.r.s. 1.0 times h.t.II at least; setae on ANT III 20 μm at least Rhamnaceae native
A. coreopsisdis (Thomas, 1878) ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization cauda finger-like and much shorter than siphunculi Bidens and other Asteraceae genera introd.: Nearctic origin
A. coridifoliae Mier Durante & Ortego, 1999 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization ABD 2–4 with marginal tubercles Baccharis (Asteraceae) native
A. craccivora Koch, 1854 discal plate species of numerous families introd.: diverse origin
A. cytisorum Hartig, 1841 discal plate, or wide spinopleural patch with marginal sclerites Cytisus and other woody Fabaceae introd.: diverse origin
A. danielae Remaudière, 1994 discal plate or marginal sclerites on ABD 2–4 in addition to spinopleural sclerotization Lycium (Solanaceae); Echinopsis (Cactaceae) native
A. eucollinae López Ciruelos & Ortego, 2016 siphunculi pale wit smoky apex Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) native
A. fabae Scopoli, 1763 ABD 1–4 frequently with small marginal sclerites sometimes in addition to spinopleural bands or sclerites; cauda broad finger-shaped with 11 setae at least species of numerous families introd.: diverse origin
A. farinosa Gmelin, 1790 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization siphunculi pale and very long (1.7 times cauda at least) Salix (Salicaceae) introd.: diverse origin
A. forbesi Weed, 1889 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization ANT VI p.t. 1.6 times ANT VI b. at least; u.r.s. 1.6 times h.t.II at least Fragaria (Rosaceae) introd.: Nearctic origin
A. gossypii Glover, 1877 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization cauda finger-shaped and paler than siphunculi; ANT VI p.t. 2 times ANT VI b. at least species of numerous families introd.: diverse origin
A. hederae Kaltenbach, 1843 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization, but if sclerites are present: ANT III with secondary sensoria Hedera (Araliaceae) introd.: diverse origin
A. illinoisensis Shimer, 1866 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization hind tibiae dark; siphunculi much more longer than cauda Vitis (Vitaceae) introd.: Nearctic origin
A. intrusa Ortego, 1998 discal plate [ANT III with secondary sensoria] Senecio (Asteraceae) native
A. intybi Koch, 1854 discal plate, or wide spinopleural patch with marginal sclerites Cichorium (Asteraceae) introd.: diverse origin
A. malalhuina Mier Durante, Nieto Nafría & Ortego, 1999 ABD 1–4 sometimes with marginal sclerites in addition to others that are habitually present; siphunculi very short (0.07 mm at most) and truncate Senecio (Asteraceae) native
A. marthae Essig, 1953 discal plate Qillaja (Rosaceae) native
A. martinezi Nieto Nafría, Ortego & Mier Durante, 1999 ABD 1–4 with or without segmental sclerotization (marginal spots included); siphunculi tapered and slightly curved outward; cauda broad triangular Mulinum (Apiaceae) native
A. matilei Nieto Nafría, Ortego & Mier Durante, 2000 ABD 7 without marginal tubercles; [prothoracic and abdominal segment 1 with delicate marginal tubercles] Verbena (Verbenaceae) native
A. maulensis Mier Durante & García-Tejero, 2016 ABD 7 without marginal tubercles; [abdominal segments 2–6 with flat marginal tubercles] Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) native
A. melosae Mier Durante & Ortego, 1999 marginal patches present (big specimens) or absent (small specimens with spinopleural sclerotization); u.r.s. 1.1–1.4 times h.t.II. Grindelia, Haplopappus (Asteraceae) native
A. mendocina Mier Durante, Ortego & Nieto Nafría, 2006 discal plate (habitually present) or spinopleural patch more or less developed; [cauda 1.2–2.1 times its basal width] Urtica (Urticaceae), Adesmia (Fabaceae) native
A. mulini Hille Ris Lambers, 1974 discal plate Mulinum (Apiaceae) native
A. mulinicola Hille Ris Lambers, 1974 discal plate Mulinum (Apiaceae) native
A. nasturtii Kaltenbach, 1843 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization siphunculi pale with smoky apex and longer than finger-shaped cauda species of numerous families introd.: diverse origin
A. nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1841 abdominal segments 1–4 without segmental sclerotization cauda finger-shaped and very robust, shorter than siphunculi, both black like legs Nerium and other Apocinaceae and Asclepiadaceae, mainly introd.: diverse origin
A. papillosa Mier Durante, Nieto Nafría & Ortego, 2003 ABD 2–4 with marginal tubercles Senecio (Asteraceae) native
A. paravanoi Nieto Nafría, Ortego & Mier Durante, 1999 genital plate without posterior setae Mulium (Apiaceae) native
A. patagonica Blanchard, 1944 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization cauda broad and long; ANT VI p.t. 1,5 times ANT VI b. at least Berberis (Berberidaceae) native
A. pomi De Geer, 1773 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization cauda finger-shaped and robust, shorter than siphunculi, both black Malus and other Rosaceae introd.: diverse origin
A. pseudopulchella Blanchard, 1944 ABD 2–4 with marginal tubercles Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) native
A. renjifoanae Ortego & Nieto Nafría, 2016 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization siphunculi pale in most part darkening to apex; [small setae, on ANT III and ABD 2–4 respectively 8–10 and 12–15(20) μm] Adesmia (Fabaceae) native
A. roberti Nieto Nafría, Ortego & Mier Durante, 1999 discal plate or wide spinopleural patch more marginal sclerites Mulinum (Apiaceae) native
A. ruborum (Börner, 1931) ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization siphunculi pale and cauda finger-shaped Rubus, Fragaria (Rosaceae) introd.: diverse origin
A. rumicis De Geer, 1773 ABD 1–4 frequently with small marginal sclerites sometimes in addition to spinopleural bands or sclerites; genital plate with 9–28 setae Rumex, Rheum (Polygonaceae) introd.: diverse origin
A. sambuci Linnaeus, 1758 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization antennae, siphunculi (long) and cauda (short triangular) black species of numerous families introd.: diverse origin
A. schinifoliae Blanchard, 1939 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization siphunculus entirely pale contrasting with black cauda Schinus (Anacardiaceae) native
A. schinivora Ortego, Nieto Nafría & Mier Durante, 2007. ABD 2–4 with marginal tubercles Schinus (Anacardiaceae) native
A. sedi Kaltenbach, 1843 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization cauda finger-shaped; ANT VI p.t. 1.6 times ANT VI b. at least Sedum and other genera, mainly Crassulaceae introd.: diverse origin
A. senecionicoides Blanchard, 1944 ABD 2–4 with marginal tubercles Senecio (Asteraceae) native
A. solanella Theobald, 1914 ABD 1–4 frequently with small marginal sclerites sometimes in addition to spinopleural bands or sclerites; cauda broad finger-shaped with 11 setae at least species of numerous families introd.: diverse origin
A. spiraecola Patch, 1914 ABD 1–4 without segmental sclerotization cauda finger-shaped and robust, shorter than siphunculi, both black species of numerous families introd.: diverse origin
A. tehuelchis Nieto Nafría y López Ciruelos, 2016 ABD 2–4 with marginal tubercles Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) native
A. vurilocensis Nieto Nafría, Brown & López Ciruelos, 2016 ABD 7 without marginal tubercles Mulinum (Apiaceae) native
A. zapalina Mier Durante & Ortego, 2016 ABD 2–4 with marginal tubercles [u.r.s. very long] Adesmia (Fabaceae) native
P. middletonii (Thomas, 1879) ABD 1–4 frequently with marginal sclerites; ANT III–IV(V) habitually with secondary sensoria; [siphunculi short tapering and cauda robust triangular, both dark brown to black] species of numerous families introd.: diverse origin: Nearctic
P. terricola (Rondani, 1847) ABD 1–4 frequently with marginal sclerites; ANT III–IV(V) habitually with secondary sensoria [siphunculi short tapering and cauda robust triangular, both dark brown to black] Asteraceae mainly introd.: diverse origin

 

AcknowledgmentsTOP

The field work was partially financed by the Regional Government (Junta) of Castilla and León, Spain (research projects LE 45/02 and LE 034A05).

 

ReferencesTOP


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