Graellsia, Vol 69, No 1 (2013)

Diversidad morfológica y molecular de los Unionidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) de Portugal


https://doi.org/10.3989/graellsia.2013.v69.071

J. Reis
Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Lisboa, Portugal

A. Machordom
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales MNCN-CSIC, Madrid, España

R. Araujo
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales MNCN-CSIC, Madrid, España

Resumen


Las náyades de la familia Unionidae tienen gran plasticidad fenotípica, lo que se refleja en la forma de su concha. Esta variabilidad morfológica ha sido causa de gran confusión en la taxonomía y sistemática del grupo. Se han estudiado, genética y morfológicamente, numerosas poblaciones de náyades provenientes de nueve cuencas hidrográficas portuguesas. Para ello se han analizando dos fragmentos de genes mitocondriales (ARNr 16S y Citocromo Oxidasa I) así como diferentes variables morfológicas de la concha. Se han realizado además análisis filogenéticos para conocer la sistemática de la familia e inferir una hipótesis evolutiva de su distribución en el oeste de la península Ibérica. Los datos genéticos y morfológicos sugieren la existencia de cinco especies: Anodonta anatina, Anodonta cygnea, Potomida littoralis, Unio tumidiformis y Unio delphinus. La diferenciación de estas especies, con la excepción de A. cygnea, ha ocurrido durante el aislamiento de la península Ibérica y posterior formación de las actuales cuencas hidrográficas en el Terciario. Se discute la posibilidad de que la presencia de A. cygnea se deba a una introducción reciente. Los datos morfométricos analizados pueden ser útiles para separar las especies del género Unio, pero son también dependientes de las condiciones ambientales. La elevada variabilidad morfológica dentro de cada especie está relacionada con su plasticidad fenotípica, pero tiene a su vez un importante papel en el proceso evolutivo.

Palabras clave


16S; COI; península Ibérica; plasticidad fenotípica; mitocondrial; filogenia molecular; morfometría; Unionidae

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